Vacuums, cutlery, and Elephant and Castle

Space vacuum
According to this NASA diagram, there is no real vacuum, even in space

This day in London’s history: 4 February is, apparently, Create a Vacuum Day, though it is unclear as to who decided this and what you should do. It seems that there is no such thing as a perfect vacuum: even in interstellar space there is still stuff floating around.

By way of celebrating Create a Vacuum Day, this post is in memory of Hubert Cecil Booth, a British engineer who invented the first powered vacuum cleaner. Cecil Booth, who was born in Gloucester, moved to London to study civil engineering and mechanical engineering, following which he joined the company of Messrs Maudslay Sons & Field as a civil engineer.

The company, which no longer exists, stood near the site of Lambeth North underground station, which is one stop away from Elephant and Castle on the Bakerloo line. So that’s enough about Mr Hubert Cecil Booth; now we move on to Elephant and Castle.

Although known primarily as an area and a train station, the ‘Elephant’ is also a street. Well, it’s really more of a junction than a street: it’s the intersection of six major roads and a tavern stood there as long ago as the 16th century.

The emblem of the Cutlers’ Company

There is a great deal of speculation as to where the name came from. It is generally accepted to derive from the crest of the Cutlers Company (as in cutlery), an established guild back in the 13th century. Many of the implements made by the company involved the use of ivory, which would explain the importance of the elephant. The castle would then be the ‘howdah’, the basket-like structure to make riding on the back of an elephant easier and which, on the Cutlers’ emblem, looks very like a castle.

That’s all very well, but the Cutlers adopted that emblem in 1642, making it too late, presumably, to have inspired the pub name. However, the elephant and castle symbols appear in medieval heraldry. There are examples of it in England as early as the 15th century, such as a bench carving in Ripon Cathedral. It also featured in the arms of the Royal Africa company, incorporated in 1588. This may have some bearing on the theory that the Elephant and Castle was a brewery trademark, adopted when the company sent ale to the army in India.

There are less likely, albeit arguably more interesting, theories about the name. One is the story that some elephant bones were found in the River Fleet in 1715, but this does not take into account either the late date of that supposed find or the castle. Probably the most ingenious theory is that Elephant and Castle is a corruption of Infanta de Castile – the title given to daughters and sons (other than the heir apparent) of the kings of Spain.

“I am Jack––” Lambeth poisoner not Whitechapel killer

On this day in London’s history… the 15th of November 1892 saw Dr Thomas Neill Cream executed for murder. The Scottish doctor allegedly said “I am Jack ––” just before he was hanged. However, he is not a candidate for the Whitechapel murders as he was out of the country at the time they occurred and, in any case, his murder method of choice was poison.

Cream, who studied in Canada and then went to London, was forced to marry a woman when she became pregnant; he moved back to Canada, and then returned to the UK when his wife died in suspicious circumstances. He spent some time in Scotland until a woman with whom he was associated was found dead, pregnant and poisoned, in an alleyway, at which point he crossed the Atlantic once more, this time to Chicago.

There, Cream had an affair with a married woman, poisoned her suspicious husband and then was sentenced to life imprisonment after his lover turned state’s evidence. He was released after ten years, returned to the UK and proceeded with a career of carrying out illegal abortions and poisoning prostitutes. This ten-year span covers the time period of all the Ripper murders as well aslater killings over which there is some debate.

The over-confident doctor was caught when he tried both to frame innocent men for the Lambeth murders; in the process he exhibited knowledge of one murder that had not been considered a suspicious death and the police put two and two together.

The name Lambeth is thought to come from ‘lamhithe’, meaning the lamb harbour: either a place where lambs were loaded and unloaded, or just a muddy wharf.