Legge, Skin, and Bleeding Heart: more of London’s body part streets

Skinners Lane

Further to yesterday’s post, I think that Legge Street, which I didn’t have on my original body parts list (Pete to the rescue again) must have taken its name from Thomas Legge, who in 1354 became the first Lord Mayor of London. This was his second term, the first having been when the title was still Mayor of London. (The City of London, that is, not Greater London.) In 1354 King Edward III granted the title of Lord Mayer to Legge, who was a member of the Skinners’ Company. As well as being the first Lord Mayor of London, he was the first Skinner to hold that post.

Speaking of skin, that brings us nicely back to body parts, so let’s have a look at the Skinner’s Company. 

In the order of the twelve great livery companies, The Worshipful Company of Skinners, which obtained their first charter from King Edward III in 1327, alternates the position of six and seven with the Merchant Taylors. That gave rise to the expression ‘at sixes and sevens’.

Skin Market Place in Southwark was named for the skin trade. The market itself appears on maps in the late 1700s but is gone by the turn of the century, though the name continued. 

There is also Skinners Lane, near Garlick Hill, once known as Maiden Lane and renamed because it was a central location for the fur trade.

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Skinner Street is Clerkenwell was part of eight acres of land that were bequeathed to the Worshipful Company of Skinners in 1630 by John Meredith. It was not, however, until two hundred years later that the street was built by James Whiskin, who gave it the name. Whiskin, a plumber by trade, became a prominent figure in local affairs and a substantial businessman. He was a vestryman from 1815, a JP from 1835, and became Deputy Lieutenant for Tower Hamlets in 1846.

No-one has commented on the fact that I omitted Bleeding Heart Yard from my list of body parts; I didn’t forget it (and I should have mentioned it) but it always seems to deserve a post all of its own. That was not only the street that started my quest for information on street names, but it has also piqued the curiosity of many others.

The name is probably from a sign, but (in short) a better story is that a beautiful woman sold her soul to the devil; when the time came for him to collect he carried her off from a party and the her bleeding heart was later discovered by horrified partygoers.

All of which reminds me that someone once suggested myth and legend in London street names and I don’t think I ever followed up on that, so watch this space.

More of London’s livery companies and street names

EAS_4079Once again, I have to ask where I would be without my readers, for constructive criticism, for positive feedback, for further ideas, and for additional information. BeetleyPete (who mentioned Comet Street in Deptford and Mercury Way, New Cross as space-related) thought myth and legend would be a good idea for a future post.

MattF provided the following regarding feline-related streets: “Cateaton street was mentioned by Dickens in The Pickwick Papers but it was replaced by Gresham Street in the 1880s. Its original name of Cattestrate (1271) meant simply a street frequented by cats although it’s not clear why the name changed via the intermediate forms Catteten Streete and Catton Street.” He also thought something on livery companies and their connections to London streets would be good.

Myth and legend is proving even more of a challenge than cats did, so that may have to go on hold for a while.

Regarding the livery companies, I have covered some of them in an earlier post, which touched on, among others, four of the twelve great companies: Drapers, Ironmongers, Mercers, and Merchant Taylors. In total, there are 110 companies (at least last time I checked), which is way too many for one post so let’s look at some of the other eight great companies.

The Grocers, second on the list, started in 1100 with the first record of the Ancient Guild of Pepperers; in 1373 they became the Company of Grossers and in 1376 the Company of Grocers of London. The first Grocers Hall was in Old Jewry, which gets its name from the fact that it was the centre of the former medieval Jewish ghetto, and was destroyed in the Great Fire of London.

London bridge streetThere have been other halls, the fourth and most recent of which is located in Princes Street. That street, formed after the Great Fire, was named along with the also new at the time King Street and Queen Street.

Grocers and Drapers we have mentioned in the earlier post, so on to number four in order of precedence, which is the Worshipful Company of Fishmongers. One of the most famous members of the company was Sir William Walworth, who stabbed Wat Tyler during the Peasants’ Revolt.

The company’s current hall, known as Fish Hall (the original was destroyed in the Great Fire), houses the dagger with which Walworth stabbed Tyler. It is located on London Bridge which was originally wood and became famous when it was sold to the Americans and transported to Arizona piece by piece.

Next we have the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths, whose original hall stood in the ‘Goldsmithery’ or goldsmiths’ area of the City, was also destroyed in the Great Fire. The current hall stands on Foster Lane in the same area, making it the longest tenure of any livery Company. Foster Lane takes its name from a church dedicated to St Vedast; the name ‘Vedast’ became corrupted to ‘Foster’.

The Worshipful Company of Skinners alternates the position of six and seven with the Merchant Taylors, giving rise to the expression ‘at sixes and sevens’. Skinners’ Hall, which is Grade I listed, and a unique scheduled ancient monument, has been home to the Skinners’ Company for over 700 years.

Staining LaneThe hall is located in Dowgate Hill, which takes part of its name from one of the ancient water gates of London; the ‘dow’ appears to be shrouded in mystery. The ever-helpful John Stow said it was derived from Downe Gate because it suddenly descended to the river. Dowgate is also the name of a City of London ward.

The Worshipful Company of Haberdashers had a hall on the corner of Staining Lane and Gresham Street (formerly Maiden Lane) which was, like so many others, destroyed in the Great Fire. The current hall stands in West Smithfield (named to differentiate it from East Smithfield). Smithfield itself was once ‘smooth field’ where jousting tournaments were held and, incidentally, was where Walworth stabbed Wat Tyler.

The Worshipful Company of Salters started off in Bread Street, which was once the home of many salt traders; their hall is now in Fore Street. This street gets its name from the fact that it was built outside (before) the London city walls.

Bread StThe Worshipful Company of Vintners has a hall in Upper Thames Street and has done so since the 15th century. The piece of land on which Vintners’ Hall stands was bequeathed to the Vintners’ Company in the will of Guy Shuldham, citizen and Vintner of London, dated 7 November 1446. Upper Thames Street (and Lower Thames Street) formed what was the longest of the medieval City roads. The street was probably once the bank of the river Thames; buildings would have moved it away from the river’s edge.

Although mentioned in Pepys’s diary, Thames Street was first mentioned in 1013 when the Custom-house was founded on the street. During the reign of King Henry VIII, the street contained the London residences of many courtiers, including that of William Compton, where Henry VIII allegedly met his mistresses. (Or so says Wikipedia.)

Last in the Great Twelve, there is the Worshipful Company of Clothworkers, formed by an amalgamation of the Fullers and the Shearmen. It was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1528, and has its hall in in Dunster Court, between Mincing Lane and Mark Lane.

Mincing Lane cropMincing Lane we’ve covered a few times: it was originally from Mincheon Lane, from the Old English feminine of ‘monk’, and the name dates back to the 12th century.

Mark Lane was once either Mart Lane or Marthe Lane, depending on your source. If Mart, then the theory is that it was part of the area where, in the 15th century, basketmakers were allowed to ‘mart’, or sell, their wares. The other theory is that it was once owned by a lady called Martha.